Adam and Adapa: Two Anthropological Characters
The word "parallel," though difficult to replace, may be inappropriate and quite inadequate to take account of the complex relationships that exist between biblical and extrabiblical literary tradition. It is the purpose of this essay to address that problem with specific reference to the Adapa myth.
The Doctrine of Beginnings
The way we perceive God, the way we look at the world around us, and the way we understand our own selves all have their roots in the opening verse of Scripture: "In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth."
The Word "Earth" in Genesis 1:1
Does the word "earth" refer a) to the physical material of the earth; b) to the planet earth as a part of our solar system; c) to our earth in the sense of the land upo which life can exist? We will address this question very briefly by reviewing four problems.
The Meaning of the Chronogenealogies of Genesis 5 and 11
Genesis creation is intended to be the beginning or opening of history. The genealogies in Genesis 5 and 11 contribute to the progression of time in scripture. They trace humankind in time and through time forward to two heroes, Noah and Terah.
Genesis 5 and 11: Chronogenealogies in the Biblical History of Beginnings
It is important to consider Genesis 5 and 11 in view of: 1) their unique nature and function in the book of Genesis and in relation to other genealogies, 2) their textual history, and 3) their interpretation. It shall be the purpose of this paper to reflect on the first two of these areas of importance.
Can the Bible Establish the Age of the Earth?
I maintain that there is no biblical basis for any date in the B. C. scale for a biblical event preceding the birth of Abraham.
The Literary Structure of the Genesis Creation Story
The Documentary hypothesis and the so-called Tatbericht-Wortbericht theory have been the two main starting points of any relevant scholarly study of this text. Recently, under the influence of contemporary literary studies, attention has been drawn to the validity of the synchronic approach, and more and more scholars have thus become aware of the importance of the literary structure of this text.
The Genealogies of Genesis 5 and 11 and Their Alleged Babylonian Background
With the discovery in the early 1870's of the Babylonian flood account, which was recognized to be closely related to the flood story in Genesis, there was opened a new chapter of comparative studies relating the various aspects of the book of Genesis to materials uncovered from ancient Near Eastern civilizations.
Some Issues Regarding the Nature and Universality of the Genesis Flood Narrative
The account of the flood as given in Genesis is brief, and many different interpretations have been given to the events described therin. Three expressions used in that narrative will be analyzed below in an attempt to show their original meaning.
The Unity of the Creation Account
There is a distinct "name" theology involved in the distribution of the different names used for God in Genesis 1 and 2. The author who composed these two narratives as part of a larger whole wished to say something specific about God by using these names this way.
Adam in Ancient Mesopotamian Traditions
Since the recovery and publication of texts from the Ancient Near East is a continuing endeavor, the materials already published need to be reexamined from time to time in the light of more recent information.
The Meaning of Genesis 1:1
It may be surprising to some students of the Bible that the translation and meaning of the opening words of the Bible are disputed. For 2,000 years the first verse of the Bible has been officially translated into Western languages with the familiar words, "In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth." Now three authorized versions of the Jewish, Roman Catholic, and Protestant communities translate the first verse of the Bible differently.
Equality from the Start: Woman in the Creation Story
The first three chapters of Genesis are of crucial importance for both the origins of our world and for determining relationships between man and woman. Without these chapters, any understanding of the mutuality between man and woman is impaired and one-sided.
The Meaning of “Let Us” in Genesis 1:26
The plural "let us" in the phrase "let us make man" in Gn 1:26 has a long history of interpretation, reaching into pre-Christian times. What does the plural "us" in this enigmatic phrase indicate?
The Biblical View of the Extent of the Flood
There are two conflicting schools of interpretation regarding the extent of the Genesis flood. Traditionally the Biblical flood narrative has been understood to refer to a universal catastrophe, but on the basis of considerations from the natural sciences, commentators and interpreters began to seek for a limited flood theory or relative view of the Genesis flood.
The Genesis Genealogies as an Index of Time
The age of the earth and the antiquity of man are of no particular theological import in and of themselves, though theologians have become interested in the subject because of the purported discrepancy between the biblical view of these periods and that now held by most modern scientists.
Theological Dimensions of the Christian Doctrine of Creation
Only in confrontation by God in Christ and only in commitment to him through faith does the meaning of creation come Only in the experience of re-creation in Christ can we truly confess that we believe in God the Father almighty, the maker of heaven and earth.
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