Geoscience Research Institute


Origins 8(1):3-4 (1981).

Brief summaries of the main conclusions of the leading presentations are given below for those who may find the complete articles too long or technical.


    Primary in evolutionary thought is the concept that the geologic column has great validity. As geologists observe the rock strata around the globe, most would insist that its fossil record represents a description of life in the past. Implicit in this argument is the assumption that there is an orderly appearing of organisms from the more simple in the lower strata to the complex in the upper layers. This claim for orderliness in the fossil record has been challenged by creationists with claims of finding in the very lowest layers fossil remains of organisms that should have evolved hundreds of millions of years later. If such observations were indeed true, they would be a serious blow to the evolutionary concept. In the early sixties, Clifford Burdick claimed to have discovered pollen of modern plants in Precambrian rocks — rocks that were reportedly older than almost all known forms of life. Chadwick in this paper reexamines this claim. He has not been able to confirm Burdick's findings. However, Chadwick does point out that this type of irregularity in the fossil record has been reported by several traditional geologists and that these findings pose a challenge to one of evolution's fundamental tenets.


    Genesis 1:1 states that "in the beginning God created the heavens and the earth"; however, a serious question can be raised as to what is meant by the word "earth." Is it the physical (inorganic) material of our planet, the planet itself as part of our solar system, or the ground upon which life exists? In this study, Dr. Andreasen presents a linguistic analysis which reveals that the usage of the word "earth" in its Near Eastern setting is as varied as its present-day usage. Among the meanings of "earth" are the concepts of the whole world (or universe), a ruler's territory, the sphere of human life, and land (or ground). In the context of Genesis 1:1, it is not possible to circumscribe the Hebrew term to fit any specific category.
    A time problem is presented in Genesis 1:2, because it seems to imply preexisting material on the first day of creation. Among creationists are two major divisions of thought concerning the meaning of this verse. While one view postulates that both life and the inorganic matter of our earth was created during creation week, others interpret the verse to allow for the possibility of the existence of the inorganic matter long before creation week. With the author's observations about the Hebrew usage of the word "earth," it is possible to allow for either an entire creation event of inanimate and animate material in close succession or a long interval between the two.


    This article represents an added feature to ORIGINS. The material on geo and cosmic chronology is presented in brief outline form and is supplemented by an extensive bibliography. In the narrative portion, the author discusses the various evidences for a 4.5 billion-year-old universe and lists the different methods used to develop this date. Twenty-four different methods for dating and their conclusions are briefly listed. It is hoped that the readers of ORIGINS will find this format useful as a reference tool for their own research. The Editors invite your suggestions to assist us in determining other areas that should be considered.


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